Abstract views: 180 / PDF downloads: 53


  • Engin Tilkat
  • Ayşe Hoşer
  • Emine Ayaz Tilkat
  • Veysel Süzerer
  • Yelda Özden Çiftçi


Industrial hemp production, breeding strategies, sustainability, potential applications


Industrial hemp, a versatile and sustainable plant, possesses a broad array of applications. It offers fiber from its stems, food from its seeds, and oil from its flowers and seeds. Its importance lies in its contribution to economic, social, and environmental sustainability, thereby playing a crucial role in fostering a sustainable future. The extensive literature on industrial hemp emphasizes its potential as a sustainable resource. This review aims to underscore hemp's significance globally and highlights various aspects of industrial hemp production, encompassing breeding techniques, challenges, economic projections, and potential utilization.


Letcher, T. M. (2021). Global warming—A complex situation. In Climate Change Elsevier, pp. 3-17.

Singh, R. L., Singh, P. K. (2017). Global environmental problems. In: Arora, R., K. Kaushik, R., Kumar S. (eds). Principles and Applications of Environmental Biotechnology for a Sustainable Future, Springer, Netherlands, pp. 13-41.

Al-Delaimy, W., Ramanathan, V., Sánchez Sorondo, M. (2020). Health of People, Health of Planet and Our Responsibility: Climate Change, Air Pollution and Health. Springer Nature: Berlin/Heidelberg, Germany.

Agrawal, D. C., Kumar, R., Dhanasekaran, M. (2022). Cannabis/Hemp for Sustainable Agriculture and Materials. Springer: Berlin/Heidelberg, Germany.

Bonini, S. A., Premoli, M., Tambaro, S., Kumar, A., Maccarinelli, G., Memo, M., Mastinu, A. (2018). Cannabis sativa: A comprehensive ethnopharmacological review of a medicinal plant with a long history. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 227: 300-315.

Amaducci, S., Scordia, D., Liu, F. H., Zhang, Q., Guo, H., Testa, G., Cosentino, S. L. (2015). Key cultivation techniques for hemp in Europe and China. Industrial Crops and Products, 68: 2–16.

Happyana, N., Agnolet, S., Muntendam, R., Van Dam, A., Schneider, B., Kayser, O. (2013). Analysis of cannabinoids in laser-microdissected trichomes of medicinal Cannabis sativa using LCMS and cryogenic NMR. Phytochemistry, 87: 51-59.

Small, E., Naraine, S. G. U. (2016). Size matters: Evolution of large drug-secreting resin glands in elite pharmaceutical strains of Cannabis sativa (marijuana). Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution, 63: 349-359.

Bovens, M., Schläpfer, M., Fiddian, S., Holmes, A., Huizer, H., Jackaria, A. K., Szent-Györgyi, A. (2009). Recommended methods for the identification and analysis of cannabis and cannabis products. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime.

Luo, X., Reiter, M. A., D'Espaux, L., Wong, J., Denby, C. M., Lechner, A., Keasling, J. D. (2019). Complete biosynthesis of cannabinoids and their unnatural analogues in yeast. Nature, 567:123-126.

Thomas, F., Schmidt, C., Kayser, O. (2020). Bioengineering studies and pathway modeling of the heterologous biosynthesis of tetrahydrocannabinolic acid in yeast. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 104: 9551–9563.

Frassinetti, S., Moccia, E., Caltavuturo, L., Gabriele, M., Longo, V., Bellani, L., Giorgi, G., Giorgetti, L. (2018). Nutraceutical potential of hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) seeds and sprouts. Food Chemistry, 262: 56–66.

Rehman, M., Fahad, S., Du, G., et al. (2021). Evaluation of hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) as an industrial crop: A review. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 28: 52832-52843.

Chase, M. (1998). The angiosperm phylogeny group: An ordinal classification for the families of flowering plants. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden, 85: 531–553.

Li, H.L. (1974). The origin and use of cannabis in Eastern Asia linguistic-cultural implications. Economic Botany, 28: 293-301.

Pain, S. (2015). A potted history. Nature, 525(S10): S10-S11.

Ingrao, C., Giudice, A. L., Bacenetti, J., Tricase, C., Dotelli, G., Fiala, M., Siracusa, V., Mbohwa, C. (2015). Energy and environmental assessment of industrial hemp for building applications: A review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 51: 29–42.

Johnson, R. (2014). Hemp as an agricultural commodity. Congressional Research Service, 1-29.

Nissen, L., Zatta, A., Stefanini, I., Grandi, S., Sgorbati, B., Biavati, B., Monti, A. (2010). Characterization and antimicrobial activity of essential oils of industrial hemp varieties (Cannabis sativa L.). Fitoterapia, 81: 413-419.

Dutt, D., Sing, V., Ray, A. K., Mukherjee, S. (2003). Development of specialty papers in an Art: Electrical insulation paper from indigenous raw materials - Part IX. Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research, 62: 1145–1151.

Grotenhermen, F., Russo, E., Zuardi, A. W. (2016). Even high doses of oral cannabidol do not cause THC-like effects in humans: Comment on Merrick et al. Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research, 1: 102–112.

Atchison, J. E. (1996). Twenty-five years of global progress in nonwood fiber repulping. TAPPI, 79(10): 87–95.

ElSohly, M. A., Slade, D. (2005). Chemical constituents of marijuana: The complex mixture of natural cannabinoids. Life Sciences, 78: 539–548.

Gould, J. (2015): The cannabis crop. Nature, 525: S2–S3.

Radwan, M. M., Wanas, A. S., Chandra, S., ElSohly, M. A. (2017). Natural cannabinoids of cannabis and methods of analysis. In: Chandra, S., Lata, H., ElSohly, M. A. (eds.). Cannabis sativa: Bot Biotechnol. Cham., Springer, Switzerland, pp. 161–182.

Carvalho, Â., Hansen, E. H., Kayser, O., Carlsen, S., Stehle, F. (2017). Designing microorganisms for heterologous biosynthesis of cannabinoids. FEMS Yeast Research, 17.

Kumar, A., Premoli, M., Aria, F., Bonini, S. A., Maccarinelli, G., Gianoncelli, A., Memo, M., Mastinu, A. (2019). Cannabimimetic plants: Are they new cannabinoidergic modulators? Planta, 249(6): 1681-1694.

Flores-Sanchez, I. J., Verpoorte, R. (2008). Secondary metabolism in cannabis. Phytochemistry Reviews, 7: 615–639.

Johnson, R. (2019). Defining hemp: A fact sheet. Congressional Research Service, 44742.

Bridgeman, M. B., Abazia, D. T. (2017). Medicinal cannabis: History, pharmacology, and implications for the acute care setting. Pharmacy and Therapeutics, 42: 180.

Zomers, F. H. A., Gosselink, R. J. A., Van Dam, J. E. G., Tjeerdsma, B. F. (1995). Organosolv pulping and test paper characterization of fiber hemp. TAPPI Journal, 78: 149–155.

Grlic, L. (1968). A combined spectrophotometric differentiation of samples of cannabis. Bulletin on Narcotics, 20: 25-29.

Aizpurua-Olaizola, O., Soydaner, U., Ozturk, E., Schibano, D., Simsir, Y., Navarro, P., et al. (2016). Evolution of the cannabinoid and terpene content during the growth of Cannabis sativa plants from different chemotypes. Journal of Natural Products, 79(2): 324–331.

Schluttenhofer, C., Yuan, L. (2017). Challenges towards revitalizing hemp: A multifaceted crop. Trends in Plant Science, 22(11): 917-929.

Green, G. (2001). G. Green, The Cannabis Grow Bible: The Definitive Guide to Growing Marijuana for Recreational and Medicinal use, fourth ed., Green Candy Press, San Francisco, CA, USA.

Bertoli, A., Tozzi, S., Pistelli, L., Angelini, L. G. (2010). Fibre hemp inflorescences: From crop-residues to essential oil production. Industrial Crops and Products, 32(3): 329-337.

Ehrensing, D. T. (1998). Feasibility of industrial hemp production in the United States Pacific Northwest. Department of Crop and Soil Science, Oregon State University Experiment Station Bulletin 681.

Werf, H. M. G., van der Brouwer, K., Wijlhuizen, M., Withagen, J. C. M. (1995). The effect of temperature on leaf appearance and canopy establishment in fibre hemp (Cannabis sativa L.). Annals of Applied Biology, 126: 551–561.

Khan, M. M. R., Chen, Y., Belsham, T., Laguë, C., Landry, H., Peng, Q., Zhong, W. (2011). Fineness and tensile properties of hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) fibres. Biosystems Engineering, 108(1): 9-17.

Lisson, S., Mendham, N. (1998). Response of fibre hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) to varying irrigation regimes. Journal of the International Hemp Association, 5(1): 9-15.

Begg, J., Buller, C. (1995). An assessment of fiber hemp as an economic crop plant in Australia. Report for Co-operative Research Centre for Plant Science, 11 p.

Van der Werf, H., Van Geel, W., Wijlhuizen, M. (1995). Agronomic research on hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) in the Netherlands, 1987-1993. Netherlands.

Sausserde, R., Adamovics, A. (2013). Industrial hemp for biomass production. Journal of Agricultural Engineering, 44:2

Ngobeni, N. D., Mokoena, M. L., Funnah, S. M. (2016). Growth and yield response of fibre hemp cultivars (Cannabis sativa L.) under different N-levels in Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 11: 57-64.

Vera, C. L., Malhi, S. S., Phelps, S. M., May, W. E., Johnson, E. A. (2010). N, P and S fertilization on industrial hemp in Saskatchewan. Canadian Journal of Plant Science, 90: 179-184.

Canadian Hemp Trade Alliance. (2023). Hemp Production eGuide. Retrieved June 4: 2023

Jian, F., Al Mamun, M. A., White, N. D. G., Jayas, D. S., Fields, P. G., McCombe, J. (2019). Safe storage times of FINOLA® hemp (Cannabis sativa) seeds with dockage. Journal of Stored Products Research, 83: 34-43.

Kaiser, C., Cassady, C., Ernst, M. (2015). Industrial Hemp Production. Cooperative Extension Service, University of Kentucky College of Agriculture, Food and Environment, Center for Crop Diversification Crop Profile. Retrieved from

USDA. (2000) Industrial Hemp in the United States: Status and Market Potential. Economic Research Service. Report No. AGES-001E.

Idler, C., Pecenka, R., Fürll, C., Gusovius, H. J. (2011) Wet processing of hemp: An overview. Journal of Natural Fibers, 8: 59–80.

Pecenka, R., Furll, C., Idler, C., Grundmann, P., Radosavljevic, L. (2009). Fibre boards and composites from wet preserved hemp. International Journal of Materials and Product Technology, 36: 208-220.

Ranalli, P., Venturi, G. (2004). Hemp as a raw material for industrial applications. Euphytica, 140(1): 1-6.

Barth, M., Carus, M. (2015). Carbon footprint and sustainability of different natural fibers for biocomposites and insulation material: Study providing data for the automotive and insulation industry (pp. 1-48).

Jankauskienė, Z., Gruzdevienė, E., Lazauskas, S. (2014). Potential of industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) genotypes to suppress weeds. Zemdirbystė (Agriculture), 101: 265-270.

Baxter, W. J., Scheifele, G. (2008). Growing Industrial Hemp in Ontario. Vol. 2011. Ontario Ministry of Agriculture Food and Rural Affairs, Ontario, Canada.

Parisi, B., Ranalli, P. (2000). The European corn borer: Could be a constraint for the revival of hemp? Informatore Fitopatologico, 50: 5-12.

Small, E., Marcus, D., Butler, G., McElroy, A. R. (2007). Apparent increase in biomass and seed productivity in hemp (Cannabis sativa) resulting from branch proliferation caused by the European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis). Journal of Industrial Hemp, 12: 15-26.

Leonte, A., Robu, T., Gauca, C., Pochiscanu, S. (2015). Production results obtained at monoecious hemp varieties for fiber after "secuieni method". Lucraŗi Stiinţifice, Universitatea de Stiinte Agricole Şi Medicina Veterinara "Ion Ionescu de la Brad" Iaşi, Seria Agronomie, 58: 83-87.

Popa, D., Gauca, C., Trotus, E., Buburuz, A., Leonte, A. (2015). Assessment of agronomic performances of some cultivars and hybrids of monoecious hemp by early cutbacks (Secuieni Method). Analele Institutului National de Cercetare-Dezvoltare Agricola Fundulea, 83: 139-148.

Tariq, M., Kayani, M. Z., Hussain, M. A. (2012). Nematicidal activities of Cannabis sativa L. and Zanthoxylum alatum Roxb. against Meloidogyne incognita. Industrial Crops and Products, 42: 447-453.

Zhang, Q. Y., Li, Z. L., Han, B. J., Zhou, K. Q., Hashemi, M., Liu, X. B. (2013). Immediate responses of cyst nematode, soil-borne pathogens and soybean yield to one-season crop disturbance after continuous soybean in Northeast China. International Journal of Plant Production, 7: 341–353.

Fike, J. (2016). Industrial hemp: Renewed opportunities for an ancient crop. Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences, 35(5-6): 406-424.

McPartland, J. M. (1996). A review of Cannabis diseases. Journal of International Hemp Association, 3: 19-23.

Montford, S., Small, E. (1999). A comparison of the biodiversity friendliness of crops with special reference to hemp (Cannabis sativa L.). Journal of International Hemp Association, 6: 53-63.

Zegada-Lizarazu, W., Monti, A. (2011). Energy crops in rotation: A review. Biomass and Bioenergy, 35: 12–25.

Yıldırım, H., Onay, A. (2022). Endüstriyel kenevir üretimi. In A. Onay (Ed.), Endüstriyel Kenevir, Nobel Akademik Yayıncılık Eğitim Danışmanlık Tic. Ltd. Şti., Ankara, pp. 137-157.

Resmi Gazete. (1933, Haziran 24). Uyuşturucu Maddelerin Murakabesi Hakkında Kanun [Official Gazette, Number: 2435, Law on the Supervision of Narcotic Substances]. etrieved from

Akgül, A. (2014). Türkiye’de Yasadışı Kenevir Ekimi Ve Mücadele Politikaları [Illegal hemp cultivation and combat policies in Turkey]. Uluslararası Güvenlik ve Terörizm Dergisi, 5(1): 119-140.

Resmi Gazete. (2016, Eylül 29). Kenevir Ekimi ve Kontrolü Hakkındaki Yönetmelik [Official Gazette, Thursday, Regulation on Hemp Cultivation and Control]. Retrieved from

Small, E., Marcus, D. (2002). Hemp: A new crop with new uses for North America. In Janick, J., Whipkey, A. (eds.), Trends in New Crops and New Uses, ASHS Press, pp. 284-326.

Johnson, R. (2018). Hemp as an Agricultural Commodity. Congressional Research Service, 7: 5700.

Cherney, J. H., Small, E. (2016). Industrial hemp in North America: Production, politics and potential. Agronomy, 6(4): 58.

Conaway, K. M. (2018). Agriculture Improvement Act of 2018. USA: 115th Congress.

Hall, J., Bhattarai, S. P., Midmore, D. J. (2012). Review of flowering control in industrial hemp. Journal of Natural Fibers, 9: 23-36.

Parvez, A. M., Lewis, J. D., Afzal, M. T. (2021). Potential of industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) for bioenergy production in Canada: Status, challenges and outlook. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 141: 110784.

Danielewicz, D., Surma-Ślusarska, B. (2017). Properties and fibre characterisation of bleached hemp, birch and pine pulps: A comparison. Cellulose, 24(11): 5173–5186.

Devi, V., Khanam, S. (2019). Comparative study of different extraction processes for hemp (Cannabis sativa) seed oil considering physical, chemical, and industrial-scale economic aspects. Journal of Cleaner Production, 207: 645–657.

Promhuad, K., Srisa, A., San, H., Laorenza, Y., Wongphan, P., Sodsai, J., Tansin, K., Phromphen, P., Chartvivatpornchai, N., Ngoenchai, P., Harnkarnsujarit, N. (2022). Applications of Hemp Polymers and Extracts in Food, Textile and Packaging: A Review. Polymers, 14(20), 4274.

Kaur, G., Kander, R. (2023). The Sustainability of Industrial Hemp: A Literature Review of Its Economic, Environmental, and Social Sustainability. Sustainability, 15(8), 6457.

Hourfane, S., Mechqoq, H., Bekkali, A. Y., Rocha, J. M., El Aouad, N. (2023). A comprehensive review on Cannabis sativa ethnobotany, phytochemistry, molecular docking and biological activities. Plants, 12: 1245.

Crini, G., Lichtfouse, E., Chanet, G., Benyounis, K. Y., Morin-Crini, N. (2020). Applications of hemp in textiles, paper industry, insulation and building materials, horticulture, animal nutrition, food and beverages, nutraceuticals, cosmetics and hygiene, medicine, agrochemistry, energy production and environment: a review. Environmental Chemistry Letters, 18(5):1451-1476.

Sajid, M., Bari, S., Ur Rehman, M. S., Ashfaq, M., Guoliang, Y., Mustafa, G. (2022). Adsorption characteristics of paracetamol removal onto activated carbon prepared from Cannabis sativum Hemp. Alexandria Engineering Journal, 61(9): 7203-7212.

Hillig, K. W. (2004). A multivariate analysis of allozyme variation in cannabis accessions from the VIR Germplasm collection. Journal of Industrial Hemp, 9(2): 5-22.

Homagain, K., Shahi, C., Luckai, N., Sharma, M. (2016). Life cycle cost and economic assessment of biochar-based bioenergy production and biochar land application in Northwestern Ontario, Canada. Forests and Ecosystems, 3(1): 21. journal title and volume/issue numbers eksik

Beneroso, D., Monti, T., Kostas, E. T., Robinson, J. (2017). Microwave pyrolysis of biomass for bio-oil production: Scalable processing concepts. Chemical Engineering Journal, 316: 481–498.

Branca, C., Di Blasi, C., Galgano, A. (2017). Experimental analysis about the exploitation of industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa) in pyrolysis. Fuel Processing Technology, 162: 20–29.

Das, L., Liu, E., Saeed, A., Williams, D. W., Hu, H., Li, C., Ray, A. E., Shi, J. (2017). Industrial hemp as a potential bioenergy crop in comparison with kenaf, switchgrass, and biomass sorghum. Bioresource Technology, 244: 641–649.

Enagi, I. I., Al-attab, K. A., Zainal, Z. A. (2018). Liquid biofuels utilization for gas turbines: A review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 90: 43–55.

Chakraborty, R., Mukhopadhyay, P. (2019). Green Fuel Blending: A Pollution Reduction Approach. In: Reference Module in Materials Science and Materials Engineering, Elsevier, pp. 1-14.

Goh, B. H. H., Ong, H. C., Cheah, M. Y., Chen, W.-H., Yu, K. L., Mahlia, T. M. I. (2019). Sustainability of direct biodiesel synthesis from microalgae biomass: A critical review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 107: 59–74.

Veljković, V. B., Biberdžić, M. O., Banković-Ilić, I. B., Djalović, I. G., Tasić, M. B., Nježić, Z. B., Stamenković, O. S. (2018). Biodiesel production from corn oil: A review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 91: 531-548.

Mat Yasin, M. H., Mamat, R., Najafi, G., Ali, O. M., Yusop, A. F., Ali, M. H. (2017). Potentials of palm oil as new feedstock oil for a global alternative fuel: A review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 79: 1034-1049.

Kuglarz, M., Gunnarsson, I. B., Svensson, S.-E., Prade, T., Johansson, E., Angelidaki, I. (2014). Ethanol production from industrial hemp: Effect of combined dilute acid/steam pre-treatment and economic aspects. Bioresource Technology, 163: 236-243.

Maucieri, C., Camarotto, C., Florio, G., Albergo, R., Ambrico, A., Trupo, M., Borin, M. (2019). Bioethanol and biomethane potential production of thirteen pluri-annual herbaceous species. Industrial Crops and Products, 129: 694-701.

Zhao, J., Xu, Y., Wang, W., Griffin, J., Wang, D. (2020). Conversion of liquid hot water, acid and alkali pretreated industrial hemp biomasses to bioethanol. Bioresource Technology, 309: 123383.

Kreuger, E., Prade, T., Escobar, F., Svensson, S.-E., Englund, J.-E., Björnsson, L. (2011). Anaerobic digestion of industrial hemp–Effect of harvest time on methane energy yield per hectare. Biomass and Bioenergy, 35(2): 893-900.

Prade, T., Svensson, S.-E., Mattsson, J. E. (2012). Energy balances for biogas and solid biofuel production from industrial hemp. Biomass and Bioenergy, 40: 36-52.

Gissén, C., Prade, T., Kreuger, E., Nges, I. A., Rosenqvist, H., Svensson, S.-E., Lantz, M., Mattsson, J. E., Börjesson, P., Björnsson, L. (2014). Comparing energy crops for biogas production – Yields, energy input and costs in cultivation using digestate and mineral fertilisation. Biomass and Bioenergy, 64: 199–210.

Ploechl, M., Heiermann, M., Linke, B., Schelle, H. (2009). Biogas crops – Part II: Balance of greenhouse gas emissions and energy from using field crops for anaerobic digestion. Agricultural Engineering International: CIGR Journal, 11:4.

Cheng, C.-L., Lo, Y.-C., Lee, K.-S., Lee, D.-J., Lin, C.-Y., Chang, J.-S. (2011). Biohydrogen production from lignocellulosic feedstock. Bioresource Technology, 102(18): 8514–8523.

Agbor, V., Zurzolo, F., Blunt, W., Dartiailh, C., Cicek, N., Sparling, R., Levin, D. B. (2014). Single-step fermentation of agricultural hemp residues for hydrogen and ethanol production. Biomass and Bioenergy, 64: 62–69.

Bizkarra, K., Barrio, V. L., Gartzia-Rivero, L., Bañuelos, J., López-Arbeloa, I., Cambra, J. F. (2019). Hydrogen production from a model bio-oil/bio-glycerol mixture through steam reforming using zeolite L supported catalysts. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 44(3): 1492–1504.

Kelm, M., Wachendorf, M., Trott, H., Volkers, K., Taube, F. (2004). Performance and environmental effects of forage production on sandy soils. III. Energy efficiency in forage production from grassland and maize for silage. Grass Forage Science, 59:69-79.

Jung, S., Park, Y.-K., Kwon, E. E. (2019). Strategic use of biochar for CO2 capture and sequestration. Journal of CO2 Utilization, 32: 128-139.

Cuthbertson, D., Berardi, U., Briens, C., Berruti, F. (2019). Biochar from residual biomass as a concrete filler for improved thermal and acoustic properties. Biomass and Bioenergy, 120: 77–83.




How to Cite

Tilkat, E., Hoşer, A., Ayaz Tilkat, E., Süzerer, V., & Çiftçi, Y. Özden. (2023). PRODUCTION OF INDUSTRIAL HEMP: BREEDING STRATEGIES, LIMITATIONS, ECONOMIC EXPECTATIONS, AND POTENTIAL APPLICATIONS. Türk Bilimsel Derlemeler Dergisi, 16(1), 54–74. Retrieved from