Toprak Tuzluluğu ve Tuzluluğa Bitkilerin Dayanım Mekanizmaları

  • Şule SAVRAN
Keywords: Soil salinity, salt resistance mechanism


Salinity is one of the major problems of the world land and 10 million hectares of land get out of hand with salinity effect every year. In
the world, %23 of area under cultivation is salty, %37 is sodic. In Turkey, approximately 1.5 million hectares of suitable for irrigation area
have salinity and alkalinity, 2.8 million hectares have drainage problems. Soil salinity, especially in arid and semi-arid region is seen
especially in lack of drainage areas. The soluble salts are transported upwards by capillarity with irrigation and deposited in the soil. In the
saline soils, EC of saturated soil is >4ds/m, exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP) is <%15 and soil pH is <8.5. In the soil solution, basic
cations (Na, Ca, Mg and K) and anion (Cl, SO4 ,HCO3 , CO3 and NO3) are minerals which are cause salinity. In the soil, increasing the salt
concentration caused an increase osmotic pressure, so water uptake of plants from the soil is difficult, ıt causes deterioration of soil structure
and plant growth is slow or even lead to stop. Salt tolerance of plants are vary. Salt-sensitive plants makes an uncontrolled uptake ion in salty
environment. This plants haven’t section to store a high ratio of salt, ıt causes damage to the plant. This damage is not an osmotic stress, is
composed of more ion toxicity. Halophytes plants are not damaged against salinity with accumulation Na and Cl salts in leaves. Breeding of
salinity soils and gaining agriculture are receiver time and expensive, this requires determination of salt-tolerant plants which can be grown
economically. It is contemplated that salinity soils can be brought into agricultural area with salt tolerant plants breeding and the soil salinity
can be prevented with the dissemination of deliberately irrigation.